In Kindergarten, instructional time will emphasize three areas:

(1) developing an understanding of counting to represent the total number of objects in a set and to order the objects within a set;

(2) developing an understanding of addition and subtraction and the relationship of these operations to counting and

(3) measuring, comparing and categorizing objects according to various attributes, including their two- and three-dimensional shapes.

**Number Sense and Operations**

MA.K.NSO.1 Develop an understanding for counting using objects in a set.

MA.K.NSO.1.1: Given a group of up to 20 objects, count the number of objects in that group and represent the number of objects with a written numeral. State the number of objects in a rearrangement of that group without recounting.

MA.K.NSO.1.2: Given a number from 0 to 20, count out that many objects.

MA.K.NSO.1.3: Identify positions of objects within a sequence using the words “first,” “second,” “third,” “fourth” or “fifth.”

MA.K.NSO.1.4: Compare the number of objects from 0 to 20 in two groups using the terms less than, equal to or greater than.

MA.K.NSO.2 Recite number names sequentially within 100 and develop an understanding for place value.

MA.K.NSO.2.1: Recite the number names to 100 by ones and by tens. Starting at a given number, count forward within 100 and backward within 20.

MA.K.NSO.2.2: Represent whole numbers from 10 to 20, using a unit of ten and a group of ones, with objects, drawings and expressions or equations.

MA.K.NSO.2.3: Locate, order and compare numbers from 0 to 20 using the number line and terms less than, equal to or greater than.

MA.K.NSO.3 Develop an understanding of addition and subtraction operations with one-digit whole numbers.

MA.K.NSO.3.1: Explore addition of two whole numbers from 0 to 10, and related subtraction facts.

MA.K.NSO.3.2: Add two one-digit whole numbers with sums from 0 to 10 and subtract using related facts with procedural reliability.

**Algebraic Reasoning**

MA.K.AR.1 Represent and solve addition problems with sums between 0 and 10 and subtraction problems using related facts.

MA.K.AR.1.1: For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number.

MA.K.AR.1.2: Given a number from 0 to 10, find the different ways it can be represented as the sum of two numbers.

MA.K.AR.1.3: Solve addition and subtraction real-world problems using objects, drawings or equations to represent the problem.

MA.K.AR.2 Develop an understanding of the equal sign.

MA.K.AR.2.1: Explain why addition or subtraction equations are true using objects or drawings.

**Measurement**

MA.K.M.1 Identify and compare measurable attributes of objects.

MA.K.M.1.1: Identify the attributes of a single object that can be measured such as length, volume or weight.

MA.K.M.1.2: Directly compare two objects that have an attribute which can be measured in common. Express the comparison using language to describe the difference.

MA.K.M.1.3: Express the length of an object, up to 20 units long, as a whole number of lengths by laying non-standard objects end to end with no gaps or overlaps.

**Geometric Reasoning**

MA.K.GR.1 Identify, compare and compose two- and three-dimensional figures.

MA.K.GR.1.1: Identify two- and three-dimensional figures regardless of their size or orientation. Figures are limited to circles, triangles, rectangles, squares, spheres, cubes, cones and cylinders.

MA.K.GR.1.2: Compare two-dimensional figures based on their similarities, differences and positions. Sort two-dimensional figures based on their similarities and differences. Figures are limited to circles, triangles, rectangles and squares.

MA.K.GR.1.3: Compare three-dimensional figures based on their similarities, differences and positions. Sort three-dimensional figures based on their similarities and differences. Figures are limited to spheres, cubes, cones and cylinders.

MA.K.GR.1.4: Find real-world objects that can be modeled by a given two- or three-dimensional figure. Figures are limited to circles, triangles, rectangles, squares, spheres, cubes, cones and cylinders.

MA.K.GR.1.5: Combine two-dimensional figures to form a given composite figure. Figures used to form a composite shape are limited to triangles, rectangles and squares.

**Data Analysis and Probability**

MA.K.DP.1 Develop an understanding for collecting, representing and comparing data.

MA.K.DP.1.1: Collect and sort objects into categories and compare the categories by counting the objects in each category. Report the results verbally, with a written numeral or with drawings.